17 June 2024

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A reliable and safe electric power system is essential for the industry, on ships and for the whole of society. That is why I share my knowledge and experience in the field of electric power generation and distribution with anyone who needs it. I have worked as a self-employed power systems consultant since 2001.

Registration “Getting Started With SKM Power Tools” open

Registration for the training course Getting Started With SKM Power Tools is open now. The training will take place November 26 – 27, 2020 in CitizenM Rotterdam Hotel, the Netherlands. The number of participants is limited. [Read more …]

Intelligent Electronic Device (IED)

Microprocessor-based voltage regulators, protection relays, circuit breaker controllers, etc. with the capability of serial communication with other devices are Intelligent Electronic Device (IEDs). This post contains a brief overview of IED electrical interfacing, functionality, HMI and setting studies. [Read more …]

Selecting a Voltage Transformer (VT)

If the ratio, burden, class and optionally voltage factor are selected, the voltage transformer (VT) or potential transformer (PT) has been specified basically. Of course additional requirements like type, frequency, environmental conditions should also be specified.

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Selecting a Current Transformer (CT)

If the current ratio, burden and class are selected, the current transformer (CT) has been specified basically. Of course additional requirements like type, frequency, isolation level, maximal short circuit current and environmental conditions should also be specified. [Read more …]

Generator Operation Modes

There are three modes of operation for generators: stand-alone, island and parallel with the utility. Each operation mode requires specific turbine fuel and generator excitation controls. In this post I describe features of each mode of operation.
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Isochronous Vs Droop Control For Generators

What is isochronous control? And droop control? When should you use isochronous speed control and when droop? What is reactive droop compensation? In this post I will answer these questions. [Read more …]

General information about power systems on the web

Today the web offers quite a lot of general information about electrical power engineering, that I use gratefully. Below are some interesting websites. [Read more …]

Protection relays then and now

In the past, manufacturers assembled generator protection systems from electro-mechanical and later electronic relays. Each relay contained only one or some dedicated protective functions. [Read more …]

Voltage regulators then and now

Initially, an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) for generators was an electro-mechanical device with a variable resistance as an output. Generators with a dc exciter were often provided with the Brown Boveri (BBC) Universal Voltage Regulator. [Read more …]

Generator protection functions

The generator protection functions with their English and Dutch description, including ASCI/IEEE device codes and IEC symbols, are implemented in a table.
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